ELECTRICIAN ORANGE COUNTY CA, ELECTRICIAN IN ORANGE COUNTY CA, ORANGE COUNTY ELECTRICIAN, BEST ELECTRICIANS ORANGE COUNTY CA, Electricians orange county california, Residental Electrician Orange County, Yelp Electrician Orange County, Commercial Electrician Orange County, Electrical Contractor Orange County CA, Industrial Electricial Orange County, FREE ESTIMATES, Commercial Electric Wiring, electric lighting repair, industrial electric Costa mesa, electric service orange county, lighting wiring, Mission Viejo, Huntington Beach, San Clemente
(714) 469-2110
Electrician Orange County CA - JS ELECTRIC - Call Today (714) 469-2110
Aliso Viejo, Irvine, Lake Forest, Rancho Santa Margarita, Laguna Beach, Laguna Hills, Laguna Niguel, Trabucco Hills, Foothill Ranch, Laguna Woods, San Juan Capistrano, Anahiem, Huntington Beach, Newport Beach, San Clemente, Yorba Linda, Tustin, Buena Park, Fountain Valley, Fullerton, Mission Viejo

"Invention is the most important product of man's creative brain. The ultimate purpose is the complete mastery of mind over the material world,
the harnessing of human nature to human needs." - Nikola Tesla

Electrical Wiring, Bus Bars, Breaker Panel, Junction Box, Grounding, Light Fixtures, Solar Power, LED Lighting, Motors, Electrical Equipment, Electricity Meter, Transformer, Material Handling Equipment, Switches, Cabling, HVAC, Restaurants, Residential, Commercial Building, Shopping Mall, Warehouses, Office Buildings, Retail Stores, Factory, Brewery, Distillery, University, Refinery, Foundry, Manufacturing Buildings, Apartment Buildings, Bakeries, Data Centers, Hospitals, Homes, Chandeliers, Home Automation, Refrigeration, Movie Theater, Standby Generators, Emergency Power System, Electric Motors, Pools, Jacuzzi, Hotels, Senior Centers, HOA - Home Owner Associations, Medical Offices


Orange County

JS Electric
We are licensed 652382,
bonded, and insured

We accept Visa/Mastercard.

(714) 469-2110

"Good Power
Leads To Great Things!"
Greater Living

(714) 469-2110

In Orange County

JS Electric
We are licensed 652382,
bonded, and insured

We accept Visa/Mastercard

(714) 469-2110

24112 Valyermo Drive
Mission Viejo, CA 92691

111 W. Avenida Palizada
San Clemente, CA 92672

19171 Magnolia Ave.
Huntington Beach, CA 92646

(714) 469-2110


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Orange County CA, Visit: OrangeCountyCA

JS Electric is one of the most responsive and proficient electrician companies I have seen. My experience with them has is that they have demonstrated the knowledge and experience to handle any electrical issue for large, as well as smaller projects. Plus, they are very responsive and provide excellent customer service. I recommend them highly.



"No Job Is Too Big or Too Small, Electricity Done Right!"


"All contractors should be like Jim - punctual, efficient, honest, and knowledgeable. It was an absolute pleasure working with him." AnthonyP

Your Friendly Helpful Electrical
Contractor in Orange County

If you are building new location, looking to purchase a whole new electrical system, need a few outlets rewired, switches installed, electrical pannels installed, high voltage equipment installed or your circuit breaker needs to be replaced or you keep blowing breakers,
JS Electric of Orange County is here to help you.

" JS Electric is one of the most responsive and proficient electrician companies I have seen. My experience with them has is that they have demonstrated the knowledge and experience to handle any electrical issue for large, as well as smaller projects. Plus, they are very responsive and provide excellent customer service. I recommend them highly."

We are your Industrial, Commerical and Residential Electrical Contractor Serving
ALL of Orange County California

We are Licensed and Bonded C-10 electrical contractor serving Orange County area since 1979. Our skilled electricians provide professional, diagnostic troubleshooting and

Remember we give free estimates and can also do an analysis
to lower your electrical bills.

VERY PROFESSIONAL "Jim and his crew are very professional, thorough, and helpful. I had all my old halogens and containers replaced by newer cntainers and LED bulbs in kitchen and living room (high ceiling). They did a great job. Later, I had new recessed lights with LED bulbs / containers installed in all bedrooms. Wonderful job, good rewiring from attic, nice clean drywall patchup, and good cleanup. Overall excellent service. Good people to work with." Bindu


RESIDENTIAL- Troubleshooting, Ceiling Fans, Recessed Lights, Pools & Spas, Malibu Lights, Circuit Breakers, Motion Detectors, Home Theater Systems, HDTV installations, Home Automation, Network Cabling, Kitchen Lighting, Landscape Lighting, Breaker Panel Upgrades, Shorted Wires, New Home Services, Track Homes, Custom Built Homes, New Outlets and Switches, Old Aluminum Wire, Electric Car Stations, Solar Panels, Home Generators, HVAC Electrical, LED Lighting, Chandeliers, Entry Gates and Controls, Recessed Lighting.

COMMERCIAL - Troubleshooting, Dedicated Lines, Data Cables, Telephone Lines, Load Centers, Office Lights, Remodeling, Electrical Pannels, Dedicated Circuits, Grounding, Show Rooms, Tenant Electrical Improvements, Landscape Lighting, Fans, Motors, Copier Outlets, Troubleshooting & Repairs Breaker & Fuse Repairs 277 Volt Commercial Lighting Repairs & Installations Indoor / Outdoor Lamps & Ballast Repairs Exit & Emergency Power Outage lighting Restaurant Equipment Hook-ups Time Clocks & Photo Cells 220 & 240 Volt Dedicated circuits Copiers, Faxes and Computer circuits New Panels & Transformers, Property Managers & HOA service Code Violations & Repairs, Motor Control Circuits, Equipment Rooms, Breakrooms, Restaurants, Kitchens, Skyscrapers, Parking Lights, LED Conversions, Doctor Offices, Beauty Schools, Entry Gates and Controls, Data Centers, Corporate Headquarters, Laboratories, Recessed Lighting, Warehouses, Security Camera Cabling and Power, Big Box Retailers, Washing Machines, Apartment Complexes, Parking Garages, Shopping Centers, Monument Signs, Ice Skating Rings, Parking Lots, Retail Stores, Brewery, Universities, Bakeries, Banks and Security, Movie Theaters, Gas Stations, Convience Stores, Standby Generators, Emergency Power Systems, Solar Power, Senior Living Centers, Hospitals, Machine Shops, Production & Assembly Lines, Medical & Health Care Facilities, Food Service Chains, Property Management, Food Preparation Clients.

INDUSTRIAL - Troubleshooting, Machine Hookups, Warehouse Lights, Security, Lights, Transformers, 480V Wiring, Motor Control, Electrical Pannels, Grounding, High Voltage Wiring, Specialty Equipment Wiring, Auto Repair Shops, Manufacturing Plants, Recycling Plants, Conveyor Belts, Robots, 3D Printers, Stamping Machines, Injection Machines, Bending Machines, Forming Machines, Sewing Machines, Electroplating, Shreaders, Distillery, Factories, Distribution Hubs, Gate Controls, Rooftop Equipment, Bakeries, Butchers, Cleanrooms, Mixers, Emergency Power Backups, Solar Power Generators, Electrical Switch Boxes, Emergency Stop Buttons, Fans, Cooling, Refrigeration, Sorting Machines, Recycling Equipment, Robot and Electric Vehicle Charging Stations, Conveyor Systems, Refineries, Distilleries, Foundries.

For a limited time, many Utility & Power Companies are offering huge rebates on new Energy Efficient LED lighting. In many cases, with these rebates, our customers have seen paybacks in 12 months!

For quality work and reasonable prices call us at:

CALL US TODAY (714) 469-2110




JS Electric is a full-service electrical contracting business you can count on to be there when you need us. We are centrally located in Mission Viejo, San Clemente and Huntington Beach and provide service throughout all of Orange County. From small jobs to custom remodels we provide complete services for all your residential, remodeling and restoration needs, or any new projects! OUR SPECIALTIES INCLUDE:

  • Home Inspections
  • Complete Re-wires
  • Recessed Lighting Custom Lighting
  • Panel Upgrades / Panel Relocates
  • Jacuzzi / Spa Hook-Ups
  • 110 / 220
  • Ceiling, Attic, Gable and Whole-House Fans
  • Phone/Cable Line Installations
  • Surround Sound / Speaker Lines
  • Installation of HDTV Systems and Home Theaters
  • Complete Kitchen and Bathroom remodels
  • Under cabinet lighting
  • Indoor/Outdoor Lighting
  • Ceiling fan installation
    Low voltage lighting/landscape lighting
  • Dedicated outlets
  • Troubleshooting experts and much more
  • Condo Services
  • Pool & spa wiring
  • Network Cabling
  • Intercom Systems
  • CAT 6 and Higher, CAT 5e, CAT 3 wire installation
  • Landscape Lighting
  • Chandelier Installation
  • Breaker Replacement
  • GFI Socket installation
  • Home Automation
  • Electric heater outlet installation
  • Electric dryer outlet installation
  • Home Theater Installation
  • HVAC electrical
  • LED Lighting
  • Motor Control Circuits
  • Garage lighting
  • Garage outlets
  • Ballast / Lamp Replacing

CALL US TODAY (714) 469-2110



JS Electric provides high quality tenant improvement and commercial services to many businesses in Southern California. We do the big high voltage electrical jobs you find in factories as well as the lower voltage you find in office buildings. No job is too big or to small. Remember we give FREE ESTIMATES and are a phone call away. We specialize in:

  • Lighting Consultation/Maintenance
  • Tenant Improvements
  • Troubleshooting
  • Rewiring, Repairs, Installation
  • Panel Repairs/Upgrades
  • 3 Phase & Single Phase Wiring
  • Repair / Replace / Install Circuit Breakers & Fuses
  • Repair / Replace / Install Outlets, Switches and Lighting
  • Dedicated outlets
  • High Voltage & Low Voltage
  • Transformer Replacement/Repair
  • Motor Control Circuits
  • 450 VAC
  • Installation of Equipment
  • HVAC Electrical on Roof Tops
  • Electrical Troubleshooting
  • Robots and 3D Printers Power
  • Medical Offices
  • Restuarant Equipment
  • Recharging Stations
  • Gate and Access Controls
  • Office Buildings, Hotels & Apartment Complexes
  • Conveyor Systems
  • Pumping Stations
  • Recycling Plants
  • Laboratories and Cleanrooms
  • Aluminum Wire to Copper wire Pigtailing
  • Ceiling Fan Installation
  • HOA Electrical Violations and Repairs
  • Property Management Companies
  • Medical and Health Care Facilities
  • Shopping Malls & Big Box Retailers
  • Specialty Machine Installation and Removal
  • Recessed Fixture Installation
  • Warehouses
  • Landscape Lighting
  • Meter Panel Upgrades
  • Breaker Replacement
  • Electric Lifts and Cranes
  • Fuse Replacement
  • 220 Volt Service Installation and Repair
  • Rewiring
  • Parking light installation and Maintenance
  • Sign Service and Repair
  • Low Voltage Touch Plate / Relay Systems
  • CAT 6 and higher, CAT 5e, CAT 3 wire installation
  • Preventative maintenance and inspections

  • HID Lighting and Control

  • T5 retrofit

  • Lighting Design

  • Transformers

  • Isolated Computer Circuits

  • Ballast / Lamp Replacing

  • 1 Phase / 3 Phase Circuits

    Generators     Dedicated circuits )
    High-Voltage Splicing     Computer room power
    Data-Com     UPS and generator installations
    Service Upgrades & Charging Stations     Motor and control circuitry
    Dorm Buildings     Data & communication cabling and network equipment
    Cleanrooms and Conveyor Systems     Telephone system installation and service
    Commercial Buildings     Lighting design and custom installation
    Electrical Design and Build     Lighting efficiency retrofits
    Fire Alarms     Monthly lighting maintenance contracts
    Industrial Work, 3D Printing, Robots     Pool & spa wiring
    Waste Water Treatment Plants     Electrical inspections
    Underground Power Line Distribution     Custom Industrial Machines
    Pole Line Construction     Parking Lot LIghting
    Restaurant Equipment & Power Upgrades     LED Retrofit LIghting
    Motor Control Systems     Hotels, Warehouses, Labratories and Factories
    Industrial Buildings and Lifts     Office Buildings, Schools, and Apartments



Do You Supply Free Quotes?
Yes, We provide free quotes. Ask us for a FREE ESTIMATE on your electrical needs.

What is Troubleshooting?
Trouble shooting is the "detective work" involved in any electrical repair. We need every clue we can get to troubleshoot quickly and accurately. You can help us tremendously by giving us an accurate description of what the problem was, and also how and when the problem occurred. We test and examine your wiring of course, but first we listen to you, to find out exactly what you have experienced and why you have called us.

Can you fix the problem the same day?
We will make every effort to do so. More often than not we can fix the problem very quickly the same day. Some problems require a city permit, an inspection, or the power company to do work and we have to work with these entity's schedules.

Are you licensed, bonded and insured?
YES, we are licensed by the state of California, bonded and insured for your protection and our own.

Will my electrical project require a building permit?
Many household service and repair work will not require a permit. Larger projects such as room additions and service and panel upgrades will require a permit and subsequent inspections. Each city has different variation. Failure to hire a licensed professional could require your work to be completely redone at additional expense.

Do you handle emergencies?
Yes, please give as a call we handle emergencies.

CALL US TODAY (714) 469-2110


REVIEWS & Testimonials:
What People are Saying About Their Electricians Experience...


"Jim and his crew are very professional, thorough, and helpful. I had all my old halogens and containers replaced by newer cntainers and LED bulbs in kitchen and living room (high ceiling). They did a great job.

Later, I had new recessed lights with LED bulbs / containers installed in all bedrooms. Wonderful job, good rewiring from attic, nice clean drywall patchup, and good cleanup. Overall excellent service. Good people to work with."

- Bindu


"All contractors should be like Jim- punctual, efficient, honest, and knowledgeable. It was an absolute pleasure working with him." - AnthonyP


"JS ELectric has done several jobs for me and is always very responsive and professional. Jim is usually in touch with you within several hours and on the job within 1 day. His work is very efficient and professional." - Yahoo Local User


"Mr. Jim is Electrifying!? - It is such a pleasure to have Jim attend to any of your Electricity needs. Not only is he super punctual and appears when he says he'll be there, ...? More » It is such a pleasure to have Jim attend to any of your Electricity needs. Not only is he super punctual and appears when he says he'll be there, but he is a true professional! He knows what he is doing, which, when you are talking about elctricity, it kind of matters!! It is my pleasure to recommend Jim as the most efficient and trustworthy electrician I've come accross. Thank you Jim for being such a pro!" - HealthGuru


"Jim is a very reliable and honest electrician. He responds quickly to calls, can handle all of your electrical needs, and is fairly priced. I would definitely recommend JS Electric.!" - Marian, Lake Forest, CA


"A real electrician!! Jim will fix whatever needs doing, upgrade your panel or install any electrical need. Jim is a patriotic American who knows the electrical world like no one I have ever met. He likes his job too!!!" - Richard B, San Clemente CA


"Shockingly Good ! JS Electric Installed several underwater lights and a pump at my home and completed the work at the prices quoted in a timely manner. Jim Smith was a pleasure to work with and I would not hesitate to contract with JS Electric Again. Ken Filadelfia Delfia Automation Systems (949) 589-7571" - Mission Viejo CA


"Thanks Jim for your great electrical work and fantastic pricing. You are truly someone I can depend on to get to the job quickly and fix the problem others can't. I have be very impressed every time I have used your services!" - Pat, Lake Forest CA


"JS Electric is one of the most responsive and proficient electrician companies I have seen. My experience with them has is that they have demonstrated the knowledge and experience to handle any electrical issue for large, as well as smaller projects. Plus, they are very responsive and provide excellent customer service. I recommend them highly." - Yahoo Local User


"Jim Smith of JS Electric did all the wiring for my new home office. Not only is Jim an expert electrician, he took the time to listen to what I wanted and then provided me with valuable suggestions and ideas - each of which proved to be right. Jim and his crew were prompt, reasonable and professional." - Tracy Murphy Attorney At Law Irvine CA


"I don’t know what it is with houses these days. When I was a kid the bedrooms all had lights in the middle of the ceiling. After years of going without, I call Jim Smith at JS Electric to install a light fixture for us and connect it to the switch on the wall. Should have done it long ago!" - Thanks Jim. Richard Foushee DDS, Aliso Viejo, CA


"Perfect Electrical Work. Very fair quotes. Hardworking. This guy gets the job done with no headaches." - Adam, Newport Beach CA


"Jim Smith is a professional, reliable and quality electrician. Though I have quite thankfully not had to use him yet, many of my business associates have. He has consistently exceeded their expectations and delivered quality results. I highly recommend Jim to all of my business associates and to you." - Virginia, Irvine CA


"I have been referring work to J.S. Electric for several years. The owner Jim Smith has done a great job with any job I have sent him and as a general contractor, keeping my clients happy is very important to me. Thanks again Jim" - J.C. Rancho Santa Margarita

"Click Here" to Read More Testimonials

CALL US TODAY (714) 469-2110

The Electrician
TVA Linemen.jpg
TVA electricians, Tennessee, 1942
Occupation type
Activity sectors
Construction, Maintenance, Electrical Grid
Related jobs

An electrician is a tradesperson specializing in electrical wiring of buildings, stationary machines. and related equipment. Electricians may be employed in the installation of new electrical components or the maintenance and repair of existing electrical infrastructure. Electricians may also specialize in wiring ships, airplanes, and other mobile platforms, as well as data and cable.


Electricians were originally people who demonstrated or studied the principles of electricity, often electrostatic generators of one form or another.

In the United States, electricians are divided into two primary categories: linemen, who work on electric utility company distribution systems at higher voltages, and wiremen, who work with the lower voltages utilized inside buildings. Wiremen are generally trained in one of five primary specialties: commercial, residential, light industrial, industrial, and low-voltage wiring, more commonly known as Voice-Data-Video, or VDV. Other sub-specialties such as control wiring and fire-alarm may be performed by specialists trained in the devices being installed, or by inside wiremen.

Electricians are trained to one of three levels: Apprentice, Journeyman, and Master Electrician. Apprentices in the US and Canada are working to learn the electrical trade. They generally take several hundred hours of classroom instruction and are contracted to follow apprenticeship standards for a period of between three and six years, during which time they are paid as a percentage of the Journeyman's pay. Journeymen are electricians who have completed their Apprenticeship and who have been found by the local, State, or National licensing body to be competent in the electrical trade. Master Electricians have performed well in the trade for a period of time, often seven to ten years, and have passed an exam to demonstrate superior knowledge of the National Electrical Code, or NEC.

Service electricians are tasked to respond to requests for isolated repairs and upgrades. They have considerable skills troubleshooting wiring problems, installing wiring in existing buildings, and making repairs. Construction electricians primarily focus on larger projects, such as installing all new electrical system for an entire building, or upgrading an entire floor of an office building as part of a remodeling process. Other specialty areas are marine electricians, research electricians and hospital electricians. "Electrician" is also used as the name of a role in stagecraft, where electricians are tasked primarily with hanging, focusing, and operating stage lighting. In this context, the Master Electrician is the show's chief electrician. Although theater electricians routinely perform electrical work on stage lighting instruments and equipment, they are not part of the electrical trade and have a different set of skills and qualifications from the electricians that work on building wiring.

In the film industry and on a television crew the head electrician is referred to as a Gaffer.

Electrical contractors are businesses that employ electricians to design, install, and maintain electrical systems. Contractors are responsible for generating bids for new jobs, hiring tradespeople for the job, providing material to electricians in a timely manner, and communicating with architects, electrical and building engineers, and the customer to plan and complete the finished product.

Training and regulation of trade

An electrician hooking up a generator to a home's electrical panel.

Many jurisdictions have regulatory restrictions concerning electrical work for safety reasons due to the many hazards of working with electricity. Such requirements may be testing, registration or licensing. Licensing requirements vary between jurisdictions.

United States

An electrician upgrades service on a multi-family house from two meters to four.

The United States does not offer nationwide licensing and electrical licenses are issued by individual states. There are variations in licensing requirements, however, all states recognize three basic skill categories: level electricians. Journeyman electricians can work unsupervised provided that they work according to a master's direction. Generally, states do not offer journeyman permits, and journeyman electricians and other apprentices can only work under permits issued to a master. Apprentices may not work without direct supervision.

Before electricians can work unsupervised, they are usually required to serve an apprenticeship lasting from 3 to 5 years under the general supervision of a Master Electrician and usually the direct supervision of a Journeyman Electrician. Schooling in electrical theory and electrical building codes is required to complete the apprenticeship program. Many apprenticeship programs provide a salary to the apprentice during training. A Journeyman electrician is a classification of licensing granted to those who have met the experience requirements for on the job training (usually 4080 to 6120 hours) and classroom hours (about 144 hours). Requirements include a two-year relevant degree, completion of two to six years of apprenticeship training, and passing a licensing exam.[citation needed]}.


An electrician's license is valid for work in the state where the license was issued. In addition, many states recognize licenses from other states, sometimes called interstate reciprocity participation, although there can be conditions imposed. For example, California reciprocates with Arizona, Nevada, and Utah on the condition that licenses are in good standing and have been held at the other state for five years. Nevada reciprocates with Arizona, California, and Utah. Maine reciprocates with New Hampshire and Vermont at the master level, and the state reciprocates with New Hampshire, North Dakota, Idaho, Oregon, Vermont, and Wyoming at the journeyman level.


Electricians use a range of hand and power tools and instruments.

Two of the tools commonly used by electricians. The fish tape is used to pull conductors through conduits, or sometimes to pull conductors through hollow walls. The conduit bender is used to make accurate bends and offsets in electrical conduit.

Some of the more common tools are:

  • Conduit Bender: Bender used to bend various types of Electrical Conduit. These come in many variations including hand, electrical, and hydraulic powered.
  • Non-Contact Voltage Testers
  • Lineman's Pliers: Heavy-duty pliers for general use in cutting, bending, crimping and pulling wire.
  • Diagonal Pliers (also known as side cutters or Dikes): Pliers consisting of cutting blades for use on smaller gauge wires, but sometimes also used as a gripping tool for removal of nails and staples.
  • Needle-Nose Pliers: Pliers with a long, tapered gripping nose of various size, with or without cutters, generally smaller and for finer work (including very small tools used in electronics wiring).
  • Wire Strippers: Plier-like tool available in many sizes and designs featuring special blades to cut and strip wire insulation while leaving the conductor wire intact and without nicks. Some wire strippers include cable strippers among their multiple functions, for removing the outer cable jacket.
  • Cable Cutters: Highly leveraged pliers for cutting larger cable.
  • Armored Cable Cutters: Commonly referred to by the trademark 'Roto-Split®' , is a tool used to cut the metal sleeve on MC (Metal Clad) cable.
  • Multimeter: An instrument for electrical measurement with multiple functions. It is available as analog or digital display. Common features include: voltage, resistance, and current. Some models offer additional functions.
  • Unibit or Step-Bit: A metal-cutting drill bit with stepped-diameter cutting edges to enable convenient drilling holes in preset increments in stamped/rolled metal up to about 1.6mm (1/16 inch) thick. Commonly used to create custom knock-outs in a breaker panel or junction box.
  • Cord, Rope or Fish Tape. Used to manipulate cables and wires through cavities. The fishing tool is pushed, dropped, or shot into the installed raceway, stud-bay or joist-bay of a finished wall or in a floor or ceiling. Then the wire or cable is attached and pulled back.
  • Crimping Tools: Used to apply terminals or splices. These may be hand or hydraulic powered. Some hand tools have ratchets to insure proper pressure. Hydraulic units achieve cold welding, even for aluminum cable.
  • Insulation Resistance Tester: Commonly referred to as a Megger, these testers apply several hundred to several thousand volts to cables and equipment to determine the insulation resistance value.
  • Knockout Punch: For punching holes into boxes, panels, switchgear, etc. for inserting cable & pipe connectors.
  • GFI/GFCI Testers: Used to test the functionality of Ground-Fault Interrupting receptacles.
  • Voltmeter: An electrician's tool used to measure electrical potential difference between two points in an electric circuit.
  • Other general-use tools include screwdrivers, hammers, reciprocating saws, drywall saws, flashlights, chisels, tongue and groove pliers (Commonly referred to as 'Channellock®' pliers, a famous manufacturer of this tool) and drills.


In addition to the workplace hazards generally faced by industrial workers, electricians are also particularly exposed to injury by electricity. An electrician may experience electric shock due to direct contact with energized circuit conductors or due to stray voltage caused by faults in a system. An electric arc exposes eyes and skin to hazardous amounts of heat and light. Faulty switchgear may cause an arc flash incident with a resultant blast. Electricians are trained to work safely and take many measures to minimize the danger of injury. Lockout and tagout procedures are used to make sure that circuits are proven to be de-energized before work is done. Limits of approach to energized equipment protect against arc flash exposure; specially designed flash-resistant clothing provides additional protection; grounding (earthing) clamps and chains are used on line conductors to provide a visible assurance that a conductor is de-energized. Personal protective equipment provides electrical insulation as well as protection from mechanical impact; gloves have insulating rubber liners, and work boots and hard hats are specially rated to provide protection from shock. If a system cannot be de-energized, insulated tools are used; even high-voltage transmission lines can be repaired while energized, when necessary.

Electrical workers, which includes electricians, accounted for 34% of total electrocutions of construction trades workers in the United States between 1992–2003.

Working conditions

Working conditions for electricians vary by specialization. Generally an electrician's work is physically demanding such as climbing ladders and lifting tools and supplies. Occasionally an electrician must work in a cramped space or on scaffolding, and may frequently be bending, squatting or kneeling, to make connections in awkward locations. Construction electricians may spend much of their days in outdoor or semi-outdoor loud and dirty work sites. Industrial electricians may be exposed to the heat, dust, and noise of an industrial plant. Power systems electricians may be called to work in all kinds of adverse weather to make emergency repairs.

Trade organizations

Some electricians are union members and work under their union's policies.

North America

Some electricians are union members. Some examples of electricians' unions are: International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers; Canadian Union of Public Employees, International Union of Electronic, Electrical, Salaried, Machine, and Furniture Workers ; and the International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers.
The International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers provides its own apprenticeships through its National Joint Apprenticeship and Training Committee and the National Electrical Contractors Association. Many merit shop training and apprenticeship programs also exist, including those offered by such as trade associations as Associated Builders and Contractors and Independent Electrical Contractors. These organizations provide comprehensive training, in accordance with U.S. Department of Labor regulations.

See also


  1. ^ Roger Jones (2004). Electrician. Trotman Publishing. ISBN 0-85660-997-8. 
  2. ^ Shock and Awe: The Story of Electricity- Jim Al-Khalili
  3. ^ Tester, Ross (2008-06-05). "DIY Electrical Work: Are Aussies DUMBER than Kiwis?". Silicon Chip Online. Retrieved 2012-07-20. 
  4. ^ https://bizline.commerce.wa.gov.au/energysafety/search_public_contractor.cfm
  5. ^ http://www.esv.vic.gov.au/ForElectricityProfessionals/LicensingandRegistration/Registeredelectricalcontractors/tabid/195/Default.aspx
  6. ^ http://www.tableauellis.ca/tr.1d.2ch.1rt@-eng.jsp?&tid=51
  7. ^ http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/eng/jobs/trades/index.shtml Government of Canada
  8. ^ <Red Seal Program http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/eng/workplaceskills/trades_apprenticeship/red_seal/index.shtml
  9. ^ a b Hering, Bob. "Differences Between a Journeyman & a Master Electrician". Houston Chronicle. Demand Media. Retrieved 10 April 2013. 
  10. ^ "Glossary of Electrical Terms". Nashville Electrician | Mister Sparky Electric. Retrieved 2015-10-20. 
  11. ^ http://www.cslb.ca.gov/applicants/Reciprocity/ReciprocityRequirements.asp CSLB CA
  12. ^ http://www.nvcontractorsboard.com/reciprocity.html State of NV
  13. ^ http://www.maine.gov/pfr/professionallicensing/professions/electricians/pdf/elecreciprocity.pdf State of ME
  14. ^ John Cadick et al, Electrical Safety Handbook Third Edition, Mc Graw Hill 2005, ISBN 0-07-145772-0
  15. ^ http://www.elcosh.org/en/document/557/d000539/why-are-so-many-construction-workers-being-electrocuted%253F.html Michael McCann, Why Are So Many Construction Workers Being Electrocuted?, retrieved 2010 July 27

External links


Electricity (from New Latin e-lectricus, "amber-like") is a general term that encompasses a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. These include many easily recognizable phenomena such as lightning and static electricity, but in addition, less familiar concepts such as the electromagnetic field and electromagnetic induction.

In general usage, the word 'electricity' is adequate to refer to a number of physical effects. However, in scientific usage, the term is vague, and these related, but distinct, concepts are better identified by more precise terms:

* Electric charge – a property of some subatomic particles, which determines their electromagnetic interactions. Electrically charged matter is influenced by, and produces, electromagnetic fields.

* Electric current – a movement or flow of electrically charged particles, typically measured in amperes.

* Electric field – an influence produced by an electric charge on other charges in its vicinity.

* Electric potential – the capacity of an electric field to do work, typically measured in volts.

* Electromagnetism – a fundamental interaction between the electric field and the presence and motion of electric charge.

Electricity has been studied since antiquity, though scientific advances were not forthcoming until the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. It would not be until the late nineteenth century, however, that engineers were able to put electricity to industrial and residential use. This period witnessed a rapid expansion in the development of electrical technology. Electricity's extraordinary versatility as a source of energy means it can be put to an almost limitless set of applications which include transport, heating, lighting, communications, and computation. The backbone of modern industrial society is, and for the foreseeable future can be expected to remain, the use of electrical power.

History of Electricity

Knowledge of electric discharge from electric fishes was first reported in 2750 BC by the ancient Egyptians, who referred to it as the "thunderer of the Nile". They were again reported millennia later by ancient Greek, Roman and Arabic naturalists and physicians. Several ancient writers, such as Pliny the Elder and Scribonius Largus, attested to the numbing effect of electric shocks delivered by catfish and torpedo rays, and knew that such shocks could travel along conducting objects. Patients suffering from ailments such as gout or headache were directed to touch electric fish in the hope that the powerful jolt might cure them. Similar observations were later reported by Al-Jahiz in medieval Egypt. That certain objects such as rods of amber could be rubbed with cat's fur and attract light objects like feathers was known to ancient cultures around the Mediterranean. Thales of Miletos made a series of observations on static electricity around 600 BC, from which he believed that friction rendered amber magnetic, in contrast to minerals such as magnetite, which needed no rubbing. Thales was incorrect in believing the attraction was due to a magnetic effect, but later science would prove a link between magnetism and electricity. According to a controversial theory, the Parthians in Mesopotamia (now Iraq) may have had knowledge of electroplating, based on the 1936 discovery of the Baghdad Battery, which resembles a galvanic cell, though it is uncertain whether the artefact was electrical in nature.

Electricity would remain little more than an intellectual curiosity for over two millennia until 1600, when the English physician William Gilbert made a careful study of electricity and magnetism, distinguishing the lodestone effect from static electricity produced by rubbing amber. He coined the New Latin word electricus ("of amber" or "like amber", from, the Greek word for "amber") to refer to the property of attracting small objects after being rubbed. This association gave rise to the English words "electric" and "electricity", which made their first appearance in print in Thomas Browne's Pseudodoxia Epidemica of 1646. Further work was conducted by Otto von Guericke, Robert Boyle, Stephen Gray and C. F. du Fay. In the 18th century, Benjamin Franklin conducted extensive research in electricity, selling his possessions to fund his work. In June 1752 he is reputed to have attached a metal key to the bottom of a dampened kite string and flown the kite in a storm-threatened sky. He observed a succession of sparks jumping from the key to the back of his hand, showing that lightning was indeed electrical in nature

In 1791 Luigi Galvani published his discovery of bioelectricity, demonstrating that electricity was the medium by which nerve cells passed signals to the muscles. Alessandro Volta's battery, or voltaic pile, of 1800, made from alternating layers of zinc and copper, provided scientists with a more reliable source of electrical energy than the electrostatic machines previously used. André-Marie Ampère discovered the relationship between electricity and magnetism in 1820; Michael Faraday invented the electric motor in 1821, and Georg Ohm mathematically analysed the electrical circuit in 1827. While it had been the early 19th century that had seen rapid progress in electrical science, the late 19th century would see the greatest progress in electrical engineering. Through such people as Nikola Tesla, Thomas Edison, George Westinghouse, Ernst Werner von Siemens, Alexander Graham Bell and Lord Kelvin, electricity was turned from a scientific curiosity into an essential tool for modern life, becoming a driving force for the Second Industrial Revolution.

Concepts - Electric charge

Electric charge is a property of certain subatomic particles, which gives rise to and interacts with, the electromagnetic force, one of the four fundamental forces of nature. Charge originates in the atom, in which its most familiar carriers are the electron and proton. It is a conserved quantity, that is, the net charge within an isolated system will always remain constant regardless of any changes taking place within that system. Within the system, charge may be transferred between bodies, either by direct contact, or by passing along a conducting material, such as a wire. The informal term static electricity refers to the net presence (or 'imbalance') of charge on a body, usually caused when dissimilar materials are rubbed together, transferring charge from one to the other.

The presence of charge gives rise to the electromagnetic force: charges exert a force on each other, an effect that was known, though not understood, in antiquity. A lightweight ball suspended from a string can be charged by touching it with a glass rod that has itself been charged by rubbing with a cloth. If a similar ball is charged by the same glass rod, it is found to repel the first: the charge acts to force the two balls apart. Two balls that are charged with a rubbed amber rod also repel each other. However, if one ball is charged by the glass rod, and the other by an amber rod, the two balls are found to attract each other. These phenomena were investigated in the late eighteenth century by Charles-Augustin de Coulomb, who deduced that charge manifests itself in two opposing forms, leading to the well-known axiom: like-charged objects repel and opposite-charged objects attract.

The force acts on the charged particles themselves, hence charge has a tendency to spread itself as evenly as possible over a conducting surface. The magnitude of the electromagnetic force, whether attractive or repulsive, is given by Coulomb's law, which relates the force to the product of the charges and has an inverse-square relation to the distance between them. The electromagnetic force is very strong, second only in strength to the strong interaction,[20] but unlike that force it operates over all distances. In comparison with the much weaker gravitational force, the electromagnetic force pushing two electrons apart is 1042 times that of the gravitational attraction pulling them together.

The charge on electrons and protons is opposite in sign, hence an amount of charge may be expressed as being either negative or positive. By convention, the charge carried by electrons is deemed negative, and that by protons positive, a custom that originated with the work of Benjamin Franklin. The amount of charge is usually given the symbol Q and expressed in coulombs; each electron carries the same charge of approximately -1.6022×10-19 coulomb. The proton has a charge that is equal and opposite, and thus +1.6022×10-19 coulomb. Charge is possessed not just by matter, but also by antimatter, each antiparticle bearing an equal and opposite charge to its corresponding particle.

Charge can be measured by a number of means, an early instrument being the gold-leaf electroscope, which although still in use for classroom demonstrations, has been superseded by the electronic electrometer

Electric current

The movement of electric charge is known as an electric current, the intensity of which is usually measured in amperes. Current can consist of any moving charged particles; most commonly these are electrons, but any charge in motion constitutes a current. By historical convention, a positive current is defined as having the same direction of flow as any positive charge it contains, or to flow from the most positive part of a circuit to the most negative part. Current defined in this manner is called conventional current. The motion of negatively-charged electrons around an electric circuit, one of the most familiar forms of current, is thus deemed positive in the opposite direction to that of the electrons. However, depending on the conditions, an electric current can consist of a flow of charged particles in either direction, or even in both directions at once. The positive-to-negative convention is widely used to simplify this situation. If another definition is used—for example, "electron current"—it needs to be explicitly stated.

The process by which electric current passes through a material is termed electrical conduction, and its nature varies with that of the charged particles and the material through which they are travelling. Examples of electric currents include metallic conduction, where electrons flow through a conductor such as metal, and electrolysis, where ions (charged atoms) flow through liquids. While the particles themselves can move quite slowly, sometimes with a average drift velocity only fractions of a millimetre per second, the electric field that drives them itself propagates at close to the speed of light, enabling electrical signals to pass rapidly along wires. Current causes several observable effects, which historically were the means of recognising its presence. That water could be decomposed by the current from a voltaic pile was discovered by Nicholson and Carlisle in 1800, a process now known as electrolysis. Their work was greatly expanded upon by Michael Faraday in 1833. Current through a resistance causes localised heating, an effect James Prescott Joule studied mathematically in 1840. One of the most important discoveries relating to current was made accidentally by Hans Christian Ørsted in 1820, when, while preparing a lecture, he witnessed the current in a wire disturbing the needle of a magnetic compass. He had discovered electromagnetism, a fundamental interaction between electricity and magnetics.

In engineering or household applications, current is often described as being either direct current (DC) or alternating current (AC). These terms refer to how the current varies in time. Direct current, as produced by example from a battery and required by most electronic devices, is a unidirectional flow from the positive part of a circuit to the negative. If, as is most common, this flow is carried by electrons, they will be travelling in the opposite direction. Alternating current is any current that reverses direction repeatedly; almost always this takes the form of a sinusoidal wave. Alternating current thus pulses back and forth within a conductor without the charge moving any net distance over time. The time-averaged value of an alternating current is zero, but it delivers energy in first one direction, and then the reverse. Alternating current is affected by electrical properties that are not observed under steady state direct current, such as inductance and capacitance. These properties however can become important when circuitry is subjected to transients, such as when first energised.

Electric field

The concept of the electric field was introduced by Michael Faraday. An electric field is created by a charged body in the space that surrounds it, and results in a force exerted on any other charges placed within the field. The electric field acts between two charges in a similar manner to the way that the gravitational field acts between two masses, and like it, extends towards infinity and shows an inverse square relationship with distance. However, there is an important difference. Gravity always acts in attraction, drawing two masses together, while the electric field can result in either attraction or repulsion. Since large bodies such as planets generally carry no net charge, the electric field at a distance is usually zero. Thus gravity is the dominant force at distance in the universe, despite being much the weaker.

An electric field generally varies in space, and its strength at any one point is defined as the force (per unit charge) that would be felt by a stationary, negligible charge if placed at that point. The conceptual charge, termed a 'test charge', must be vanishingly small to prevent its own electric field disturbing the main field and must also be stationary to prevent the effect of magnetic fields. As the electric field is defined in terms of force, and force is a vector, so it follows that an electric field is also a vector, having both magnitude and direction. Specifically, it is a vector field.

The study of electric fields created by stationary charges is called electrostatics. The field may be visualised by a set of imaginary lines whose direction at any point is the same as that of the field. This concept was introduced by Faraday, whose term 'lines of force' still sometimes sees use. The field lines are the paths that a point positive charge would seek to make as it was forced to move within the field; they are however an imaginary concept with no physical existence, and the field permeates all the intervening space between the lines Field lines emanating from stationary charges have several key properties: first, that they originate at positive charges and terminate at negative charges; second, that they must enter any good conductor at right angles, and third, that they may never cross nor close in on themselves.

The principals of electrostatics are important when designing items of high-voltage equipment. There is a finite limit to the electric field strength that may withstood by any medium. Beyond this point, electrical breakdown occurs and an electric arc causes flashover between the charged parts. Air, for example, tends to arc at electric field strengths which exceed 30 kV per centimetre across small gaps. Over larger gaps, its breakdown strength is weaker, perhaps 1 kV per centimetre. The most visible natural occurrence of this is lightning, caused when charge becomes separated in the clouds by rising columns of air, and raises the electric field in the air to greater than it can withstand. The voltage of a large lightning cloud may be as high as 100 MV and have discharge energies as great as 250 kWh. The field strength is greatly affected by nearby conducting objects, and it is particularly intense when it is forced to curve around sharply pointed objects. This principle is exploited in the lightning conductor, the sharp spike of which acts to encourage the lightning stroke to develop there, rather than to the building it serves to protect.

Electric potential

The concept of electric potential is closely linked to that of the electric field. A small charge placed within an electric field experiences a force, and to have brought that charge to that point against the force requires work. The electric potential at any point is defined as the energy required to bring a unit test charge from an infinite distance slowly to that point. It is usually measured in volts, and one volt is the potential for which one joule of work must be expended to bring a charge of one coulomb from infinity. This definition of potential, while formal, has little practical application, and a more useful concept is that of electric potential difference, and is the energy required to move a unit charge between two specified points. An electric field has the special property that it is conservative, which means that the path taken by the test charge is irrelevant: all paths between two specified points expend the same energy, and thus a unique value for potential difference may be stated. The volt is so strongly identified as the unit of choice for measurement and description of electric potential difference that the term voltage sees greater everyday usage. For practical purposes, it is useful to define a common reference point to which potentials may be expressed and compared. While this could be at infinity, a much more useful reference is the Earth itself, which is assumed to be at the same potential everywhere. This reference point naturally takes the name earth or ground. Earth is assumed to be an infinite source of equal amounts of positive and negative charge, and is therefore electrically uncharged – and unchargeable.

Electric potential is a scalar quantity, that is, it has only magnitude and not direction. It may be viewed as analogous to temperature: as there is a certain temperature at every point in space, and the temperature gradient indicates the direction and magnitude of the driving force behind heat flow, similarly, there is an electric potential at every point in space, and its gradient, or field strength, indicates the direction and magnitude of the driving force behind charge movement. Equally, electric potential may be seen as analogous to height: just as a released object will fall through a difference in heights caused by a gravitational field, so a charge will 'fall' across the voltage caused by an electric field. The electric field was formally defined as the force exerted per unit charge, but the concept of potential allows for a more useful and equivalent definition: the electric field is the local gradient of the electric potential. Usually expressed in volts per metre, the vector direction of the field is the line of greatest gradient of potential.


Ørsted's discovery in 1821 that a magnetic field existed around all sides of a wire carrying an electric current indicated that there was a direct relationship between electricity and magnetism. Moreover, the interaction seemed different from gravitational and electrostatic forces, the two forces of nature then known. The force on the compass needle did not direct it to or away from the current-carrying wire, but acted at right angles to it. Ørsted's slightly obscure words were that "the electric conflict acts in a revolving manner." The force also depended on the direction of the current, for if the flow was reversed, then the force did too. Ørsted did not fully understand his discovery, but he observed the effect was reciprocal: a current exerts a force on a magnet, and a magnetic field exerts a force on a current. The phenomenon was further investigated by Ampère, who discovered that two parallel current carrying wires exerted a force upon each other: two wires conducting currents in the same direction are attracted to each other, while wires containing current flowing in opposite directions are forced apart. The interaction is mediated by the magnetic field each current produces and forms the basis for the international definition of the ampere.

This relationship between magnetic fields and currents is extremely important, for it led to Michael Faraday's invention of the electric motor in 1821. Faraday's homopolar motor consisted of a permanent magnet sitting in a pool of mercury. A current was allowed to flow through a wire suspended from a pivot above the magnet and dipped into the mercury. The magnet exerted a tangential force on the wire, making it circle around the magnet for as long as the current was maintained. Experimentation by Faraday in 1831 revealed that a wire moving perpendicular to a magnetic field developed a potential difference between its ends. Further analysis of this process, known as electromagnetic induction, enabled him to state the principal, now known as Faraday's law of induction, that the potential difference induced in a closed circuit is proportional to the rate of change of magnetic flux through the loop. Exploitation of this discovery enabled him to invent the first electrical generator in 1831, in which he converted the mechanical energy of a rotating copper disc to electrical energy. Faraday's disc was inefficient and of no use as a practical generator, but it showed the possibility of generating electric power using magnetism, a possibility that would be taken up by those that followed on from his work.

Faraday's and Ampère's work showed that a time-varying magnetic field acted as a source of an electric field, and a time-varying electric field was a source of a magnetic field. Thus, when either field is changing in time, then a field of the other is necessarily induced. Such a phenomenon has the properties of a wave, and is naturally referred to as an electromagnetic wave. Electromagnetic waves were analysed theoretically by James Clerk Maxwell in 1864. Maxwell discovered a set of equations that could unambiguously describe the interrelationship between electric field, magnetic field, electric charge, and electric current. He could moreover prove that such a wave would necessarily travel at the speed of light, and thus light itself was a form of electromagnetic radiation. Maxwell's Laws, which unify light, fields, and charge are one of the great milestones of theoretical physics.

Electric circuits

An electric circuit is an interconnection of electric components, usually to perform some useful task, with a return path to enable the charge to return to its source. The components in an electric circuit can take many forms, which can include elements such as resistors, capacitors, switches, transformers and electronics. Electronic circuits contain active components, usually semiconductors, and typically exhibit non-linear behavior, requiring complex analysis. The simplest electric components are those that are termed passive and linear: while they may temporarily store energy, they contain no sources of it, and exhibit linear responses to stimuli. The resistor is perhaps the simplest of passive circuit elements: as its name suggests, it resists the flow of current through it, dissipating its energy as heat. Ohm's law is a basic law of circuit theory, stating that the current passing through a resistance is directly proportional to the potential difference across it. The ohm, the unit of resistance, was named in honour of Georg Ohm, and is symbolised by the Greek letter ?. 1 ? is the resistance that will produce a potential difference of one volt in response to a current of one amp.

The capacitor is a device capable of storing charge, and thereby storing electrical energy in the resulting field. Conceptually, it consists of two conducting plates separated by a thin insulating layer; in practice, thin metal foils are coiled together, increasing the surface area per unit volume and therefore the capacitance. The unit of capacitance is the farad, named after Michael Faraday, and given the symbol F: one farad is the capacitance that develops a potential difference of one volt when it stores a charge of one coulomb. A capacitor connected to a voltage supply initially causes a current to flow as it accumulates charge; this current will however decay in time as the capacitor fills, eventually falling to zero. A capacitor will therefore not permit a steady state current to flow, but instead blocks it. The inductor is a conductor, usually a coil of wire, that stores energy in a magnetic field in response to the current flowing through it. When the current changes, the magnetic field does too, inducing a voltage between the ends of the conductor. The induced voltage is proportional to the time rate of change of the current. The constant of proportionality is termed the inductance. The unit of inductance is the henry, named after Joseph Henry, a contemporary of Faraday. One henry is the inductance that will induce a potential difference of one volt if the current through it changes at a rate of one ampere per second. The inductor's behaviour is in some regards converse to that of the capacitor: it will freely allow an unchanging current to flow, but opposes the flow of a rapidly changing one.

Production and uses -


Thales' experiments with amber rods were the first studies into the production of electrical energy. While this method, now known as the triboelectric effect, is capable of lifting light objects and even generating sparks, it is extremely inefficient. It was not until the invention of the voltaic pile in the eighteenth century that a viable source of electricity became available. The voltaic pile, and its modern descendant, the electrical battery, store energy chemically and make it available on demand in the form of electrical energy. The battery is a versatile and very common power source which is ideally suited to many applications, but its energy storage is finite, and once discharged it must be disposed of or recharged. For large electrical demands electrical energy must be generated and transmitted in bulk. Electrical energy is usually generated by electro-mechanical generators driven by steam produced from fossil fuel combustion, or the heat released from nuclear reactions; or from other sources such as kinetic energy extracted from wind or flowing water. Such generators bear no resemblance to Faraday's homopolar disc generator of 1831, but they still rely on his electromagnetic principle that a conductor linking a changing magnetic field induces a potential difference across its ends. The invention in the late nineteenth century of the transformer meant that electricity could be generated at centralised power stations, benefiting from economies of scale, and be transmitted across countries with increasing efficiency. Since electrical energy cannot easily be stored in quantities large enough to meet demands on a national scale, at all times exactly as much must be produced as is required. This requires electricity utilities to make careful predictions of their electrical loads, and maintain constant co-ordination with their power stations. A certain amount of generation must always be held in reserve to cushion an electrical grid against inevitable disturbances and losses. Demand for electricity grows with great rapidity as a nation modernises and its economy develops. The United States showed a 12% increase in demand during each year of the first three decades of the twentieth century, a rate of growth that is now being experienced by emerging economies such as those of India or China. Historically, the growth rate for electricity demand has outstripped that for other forms of energy, such as coal. Environmental concerns with electricity generation have led to an increased focus on generation from renewable sources, in particular from wind- and hydropower. While debate can be expected to continue over the environmental impact of different means of electricity production, its final form is relatively clean.


Electricity is an extremely flexible form of energy, and has been adapted to a huge, and growing, number of uses. The invention of a practical incandescent light bulb in the 1870s led to lighting becoming one of the first publicly available applications of electrical power. Although electrification brought with it its own dangers, replacing the naked flames of gas lighting greatly reduced fire hazards within homes and factories. Public utilities were set up in many cities targeting the burgeoning market for electrical lighting. The Joule heating effect employed in the light bulb also sees more direct use in electric heating. While this is versatile and controllable, it can be seen as wasteful, since most electrical generation has already required the production of heat at a power station. A number of countries, such as Denmark, have issued legislation restricting or banning the use of electric heating in new buildings. Electricity is however a highly practical energy source for refrigeration, with air conditioning representing a growing sector for electricity demand, the effects of which electricity utilities are increasingly obliged to accommodate. Electricity is used within telecommunications, and indeed the electrical telegraph, demonstrated commercially in 1837 by Cooke and Wheatstone, was one of its earliest applications. With the construction of first intercontinental, and then transatlantic, telegraph systems in the 1860s, electricity had enabled communications in minutes across the globe. Optical fibre and satellite communication technology have taken a share of the market for communications systems, but electricity can be expected to remain an essential part of the process. The effects of electromagnetism are most visibly employed in the electric motor, which provides a clean and efficient means of motive power. A stationary motor such as a winch is easily provided with a supply of power, but a motor that moves with its application, such as an electric vehicle, is obliged to either carry along a power source such as a battery, or by collecting current from a sliding contact such as a pantograph, placing restrictions on its range or performance. Electronic devices make use of the transistor, perhaps one of the most important inventions of the twentieth century,[63] and a fundamental building block of all modern circuitry. A modern integrated circuit may contain several billion miniaturised transistors in a region only a few centimetres square.

Electricity retailing

Electricity retailing is the final process in the delivery of electricity from generation to the consumer. The other main processes are transmission and distribution.

Electricity retailing began at the end of the 19th century when the bodies who generated electricity for their own use made supply available to third parties. In the beginning, electricity was primarily used for street lighting and trams. The general public were allowed to purchase electricity only after large scale electric companies were started. The provision of these services was generally the responsibility of electric companies or municipal authorities who either set up their own departments or contracted the services from private entrepreneurs. Residential, commercial and industrial use of electricity was confined, initially, to lighting but this changed dramatically with the development of electric motors, heaters and communication devices. The basic principle of supply has not changed much over time. The amount of energy used by the domestic consumer, and thus the amount charged for, is measured through an electricity meter that is usually placed near the input of a home to provide easy access to the meter reader. Customers are usually charged a monthly service fee and additional charges based on the electrical energy (in kWh) consumed by the household or business during the month. Commercial and industrial consumers normally have more complex pricing schemes. These require meters that measure the energy usage in time intervals (such as a half hour) to impose charges based on both the amount of energy consumed and the maximum rate of consumption, i.e. the maximum demand, which is measured in kVA.

Monopoly supply
The rapid growth in electric appliance usage in the early part of the 20th century contributed to an explosive growth in electrification around the world. The supply of electricity to homes, offices, shops, factories, farms, and mines became the responsibility of public utilities, which were either private organizations subject to monopoly regulation or public authorities owned by local, state or national bodies. In some countries a statutory or government-granted monopoly was created, which was controlled by legislation (for example Eskom in South Africa). Home electrical meters Home electrical meters Electricity retailing in the period from approximately 1890 to 1990 consisted of managing the connection, disconnection and billing of electricity consumers by the local monopoly supplier. In many utilities there was a marketing function which encouraged electricity usage when there was excess capacity to supply and encouraged conservation when supply was tight.

Creating a market
In 1990 there was a significant development in the way electricity was bought and sold. In many countries, the electricity market was deregulated to open up the supply of electricity to competition. In the United Kingdom the Electricity Supply Industry was radically reformed to establish competition. This trend continued in other countries (see New Zealand Electricity Market and deregulation) and the role of electricity retailing changed from what was essentially an administrative function within an integrated utility to become a risk management function within a competitive electricity market. Electricity retailers now provide fixed prices for electricity to their customers and manage the risk involved in purchasing electricity from spot markets or electricity pools. This development has not been without casualties. The most notable example of poor risk management (coupled with poor market regulation) was the 2001 California electricity crisis, when Pacific Gas and Electric and Southern California Edison were driven into bankruptcy by having to purchase electricity at high spot prices and sell at low fixed rates. Customers may choose from a number of competing suppliers. They may also opt to pay more for "green" power, i.e. electricity sourced from renewable energy generation such as wind power or solar power. An electricity provider is often known as "the electric company" or "the power company".

The rates charged for electricity vary between countries, regions and states. The reason for the variation is primarily regulation and the way it is generated. For example, some states in the US have large hydroelectric generation facilities that are largely subsidized and relatively efficient, and rates are as low as $0.06 per kWh, as in Idaho. In other states, such as California, which has to import electricity from neighboring states, the rates can be as high as $0.38 per kWh during peak hours for high-use residential customers that pay based on time of use . As of 2006 (May), the average rate for electricity in the US was approximately $0.106 per kWh .

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Orange County is a county in Southern California, United States. Its county seat is Santa Ana. According to the 2000 Census, its population was 2,846,289, making it the second most populous county in the state of California, and the fifth most populous in the United States. The state of California estimates its population as of 2007 to be 3,098,121 people, dropping its rank to third, behind San Diego County. Thirty-four incorporated cities are located in Orange County; the newest is Aliso Viejo.

Unlike many other large centers of population in the United States, Orange County uses its county name as its source of identification whereas other places in the country are identified by the large city that is closest to them. This is because there is no defined center to Orange County like there is in other areas which have one distinct large city. Five Orange County cities have populations exceeding 170,000 while no cities in the county have populations surpassing 360,000. Seven of these cities are among the 200 largest cities in the United States.

Orange County is also famous as a tourist destination, as the county is home to such attractions as Disneyland and Knott's Berry Farm, as well as sandy beaches for swimming and surfing, yacht harbors for sailing and pleasure boating, and extensive area devoted to parks and open space for golf, tennis, hiking, kayaking, cycling, skateboarding, and other outdoor recreation. It is at the center of Southern California's Tech Coast, with Irvine being the primary business hub.

The average price of a home in Orange County is $541,000. Orange County is the home of a vast number of major industries and service organizations. As an integral part of the second largest market in America, this highly diversified region has become a Mecca for talented individuals in virtually every field imaginable. Indeed the colorful pageant of human history continues to unfold here; for perhaps in no other place on earth is there an environment more conducive to innovative thinking, creativity and growth than this exciting, sun bathed valley stretching between the mountains and the sea in Orange County.

Orange County was Created March 11 1889, from part of Los Angeles County, and, according to tradition, so named because of the flourishing orange culture. Orange, however, was and is a commonplace name in the United States, used originally in honor of the Prince of Orange, son-in-law of King George II of England.

Incorporated: March 11, 1889
Legislative Districts:
* Congressional: 38th-40th, 42nd & 43
* California Senate: 31st-33rd, 35th & 37
* California Assembly: 58th, 64th, 67th, 69th, 72nd & 74

County Seat: Santa Ana
County Information:
Robert E. Thomas Hall of Administration
10 Civic Center Plaza, 3rd Floor, Santa Ana 92701
Telephone: (714)834-2345 Fax: (714)834-3098
County Government Website: http://www.oc.ca.gov


City of Aliso Viejo, 92653, 92656, 92698
City of Anaheim, 92801, 92802, 92803, 92804, 92805, 92806, 92807, 92808, 92809, 92812, 92814, 92815, 92816, 92817, 92825, 92850, 92899
City of Brea, 92821, 92822, 92823
City of Buena Park, 90620, 90621, 90622, 90623, 90624
City of Costa Mesa, 92626, 92627, 92628
City of Cypress, 90630
City of Dana Point, 92624, 92629
City of Fountain Valley, 92708, 92728
City of Fullerton, 92831, 92832, 92833, 92834, 92835, 92836, 92837, 92838
City of Garden Grove, 92840, 92841, 92842, 92843, 92844, 92845, 92846
City of Huntington Beach, 92605, 92615, 92646, 92647, 92648, 92649
City of Irvine, 92602, 92603, 92604, 92606, 92612, 92614, 92616, 92618, 92619, 92620, 92623, 92650, 92697, 92709, 92710
City of La Habra, 90631, 90632, 90633
City of La Palma, 90623
City of Laguna Beach, 92607, 92637, 92651, 92652, 92653, 92654, 92656, 92677, 92698
City of Laguna Hills, 92637, 92653, 92654, 92656
City of Laguna Niguel
, 92607, 92677
City of Laguna Woods, 92653, 92654
City of Lake Forest, 92609, 92630, 92610
City of Los Alamitos, 90720, 90721
City of Mission Viejo, 92675, 92690, 92691, 92692, 92694
City of Newport Beach, 92657, 92658, 92659, 92660, 92661, 92662, 92663
City of Orange, 92856, 92857, 92859, 92861, 92862, 92863, 92864, 92865, 92866, 92867, 92868, 92869
City of Placentia, 92870, 92871
City of Rancho Santa Margarita, 92688, 92679
City of San Clemente, 92672, 92673, 92674
City of San Juan Capistrano, 92675, 92690, 92691, 92692, 92693, 92694
City of Santa Ana, 92701, 92702, 92703, 92704, 92705, 92706, 92707, 92708, 92711, 92712, 92725, 92728, 92735, 92799
City of Seal Beach, 90740
City of Stanton, 90680
City of Tustin, 92780, 92781, 92782
City of Villa Park, 92861, 92867
City of Westminster, 92683, 92684, 92685
City of Yorba Linda, 92885, 92886, 92887

Noteworthy communities Some of the communities that exist within city limits are listed below: * Anaheim Hills, Anaheim * Balboa Island, Newport Beach * Corona del Mar, Newport Beach * Crystal Cove / Pelican Hill, Newport Beach * Capistrano Beach, Dana Point * El Modena, Orange * French Park, Santa Ana * Floral Park, Santa Ana * Foothill Ranch, Lake Forest * Monarch Beach, Dana Point * Nellie Gail, Laguna Hills * Northwood, Irvine * Woodbridge, Irvine * Newport Coast, Newport Beach * Olive, Orange * Portola Hills, Lake Forest * San Joaquin Hills, Laguna Niguel * San Joaquin Hills, Newport Beach * Santa Ana Heights, Newport Beach * Tustin Ranch, Tustin * Talega, San Clemente * West Garden Grove, Garden Grove * Yorba Hills, Yorba Linda * Mesa Verde, Costa Mesa

Unincorporated communities These communities are outside of the city limits in unincorporated county territory: * Coto de Caza * El Modena * Ladera Ranch * Las Flores * Midway City * Orange Park Acres * Rossmoor * Silverado Canyon * Sunset Beach * Surfside * Trabuco Canyon * Tustin Foothills

Adjacent counties to Orange County Are: * Los Angeles County, California - north, west * San Bernardino County, California - northeast * Riverside County, California - east * San Diego County, California - southeast



"An honest answer is the sign of true friendship."

We receive many customers from across the world including people from the following cities:

Aliso Viejo 92656, 92698, Anaheim 92801, 92802, 92803, 92804, 92805, 92806, 92807, 92808, 92809, 92812, 92814, 92815, 92816, 92817, 92825, 92850, 92899, Atwood, 92811, Brea, 92821, 92822,92823, Buena Park, 90620 ,90621,90622, 90624, Capistrano Beach, 92624, Corona del Mar, 92625, Costa Mesa, 92626, 92627, 92628, Cypress, 90630, Dana Point, 92629, East Irvine, 92650, El Toro, 92609, Foothill Ranch, 92610, Fountain Valley, 92708, 92728, Fullerton, 92831, 92832, 92833, 92834, 92835, 92836, 92837, 92838, Garden Grove, 92840, 92841, 92842, 92843 ,92844, 92845, 92846, Huntington Beach , 92605, 92615, 92646, 92647, 92648, 92649, Irvine, 92602, 92603, 92604, 92606, 92612, 92614, 92616, 92617, 92618, 92619, 92620, 92623, 92697, La Habra, 90631, 90632, 90633, La Palma, 90623, Ladera Ranch, 92694, Laguna Beach , 92651, 92652, Laguna Hills ,92653, 92654,92607,92677, Laguna Woods, 92637, Lake Forest, 92630, Los Alamitos, 90720, 90721, Midway City, 92655, Mission Viejo, 92690, 92691, 92692,Newport Beach , 92658, 92659, 92660, 92661, 92662, 92663, 92657,
Orange, 92856, 92857, 92859, 92862, 92863, 92864, 92865, 92866, 92867, 92868, 92869, Placentia, 92870, 92871, Rancho Santa Margarita 92688, San Clemente, 92672, 92673, 92674, San Juan Capistrano, 92675, 92693,
Santa Ana , 92701, 92702, 92703, 92704, 92705 ,92706, 92707, 92711, 92712, 92725.92735, 92799, Seal Beach , 90740, Silverado 92676, Stanton, 90680, Sunset Beach 90742, Surfside 90743, Trabuco Canyon, 92678, 92679,Tustin ,92780, 92781,92782, Villa Park, 92861,Westminster, 92683, 92684, 92685, Yorba Linda, 92885, 92886, 92887

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Orange County CA, Visit: OrangeCountyCABusinessDirectory.com

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(c) 2016 Electricians Orange County CA, JS Electric,, 24112 Valyermo Drive , Mission Viejo, CA 92691
(c) 2016 Electricians Orange County CA, JS Electric,, 19171 Magnolia Ave. , Huntington Beach, CA 92646
(c) 2016 Electricians Orange County CA, JS Electric,, 111 W. Avenida Palizada, Suite 15A, San Clemente, CA 92762

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